Pakistan Timeline: 1957-1966
Jun 30, 1957
Awami League’s provincial president Maulana Bhashani resigns, accusing Suharwardy of preferential dealing with West Pakistan and for his stance on Suez Canal against party’s charter, favouring colonial powers.
Jul 26, 1957
Maulana Bhashani forms National Awami Party
Oct 12, 1957
Hussain Shaheed Suharwardy loses support of Rupublican Party and resigns. I. I. Chundrigar becomes the new Prime Minister.
I. I. Chundrigar resigns and Malik Feroz Khan Noon becomes the new Prime Minister
Jun 18, 1958
Awami Leagues coalition government falls after losing support in the East Pakistan Assembly. Krishak Sramik Party forms new cabinet that doesn’t last more than 3 days. Governor’s Rule is reestablished in the province.
Aug 26, 1958
Governor’s Rule is lifted and Awami League comes to power again
Sep 21, 1958
During an assembly session in East Pakistan, members get agitated on the partiality of the Speaker, a few members get seriously injured while the Deputy Speaker, Shahid Ali Jan gets killed.
Oct 7, 1958
Sikander Mirza the President of Pakistan, with the support of General Ayub Khan, dissolves the assemblies, suspends the Constitution, and imposes Martial Law in the Country.
Oct 27, 1958
General Ayub Khan “dismisses” Sikander Mirza and exiles him to UK, himself assuming power as Field Marshall. The Bengalis have limited representation in the Pakistan Army and thus feel political deprivation. The rift between the East and the West heightens.
Oct 26, 1959
Ayub Khan introduces “Basic Democracy” (BD) System for local government. The 80, 000 BD representatives are soon given the right/power to elect the President and members of the Parliament.
Feb 15, 1960
Ayub Khan seeks vote of confidence from 80,000 BD representatives, out of which 75,283 vote in his favour. Ayub Khan thus sworns in as the first “elected” President of Pakistan.
Lieutenant General Azam Khan is appointed as the Governor of East Pakistan. He works hard to gain support of the Bengali people but in the process loses support of Ayub Khan and has to resign
Jun 8, 1962
General Ayub Khan imposes a new Constitution in the country, introducing a Presidential form of government, with BD System being the basis of presidential election. The constitution fails to gain popular support of the people.
Oct 26, 1962
Munim Khan of East Pakistan is appointed as Governor, East Pakistan. Due to his loyalty with the General, he becomes unpopular in East Pakistan and is viewed as a West Pakistan “agent” by many Bengalis. University students refuse to receive their degrees from the Governor.
May 29, 1963
A Bengali member of parliament delivers an aggressive speech in the National Assembly, intensely representing the sentiments of the Bengali people, highlighting the divide, exploitation and prejudice against Bengalis by West Pakistan.
Jan 6, 1964
Presidential elections are held under BD System. Miss Fatima Jinnah contests against General Ayub Khan. All opposition parties, including the ones in East Pakistan support Miss Jinnah. Though the General “wins” the overall elections, he loses against Miss Jinnah in Dhaka.
Sep 6, 1965
War breaks out between India and Pakistan over the dispute of Jammu and Kashmir.
Jan 11, 1966
General Ayub Khan sings the Tashkent Declaration. The Declaration includes agreement of both sides to withdraw from occupied land. The agreement is generally perceived in Pakistan as a defeat on talks table.
Feb 6, 1966
Sheikh Mujib-ur-Rehman presents his “6-points”. The demand highlights the perceived exploitation of East Pakistan by the West Pakistani “rulers”. The six points are:
- The constitution should provide for a Federation of Pakistan in its true sense on the Lahore Resolution and the parliamentary form of government with supremacy of a Legislature directly elected on the basis of universal adult franchise.
- The federal government should deal with only two subjects: Defence and Foreign Affairs, and all other residuary subjects shall be vested in the federating states.
- Two separate, but freely convertible currencies for two wings should be introduced ; or if this is not feasible, there should be one currency for the whole country, but effective constitutional provisions should be introduced to stop the flight of capital from East to West Pakistan. Furthermore, a separate Banking Reserve should be established and separate fiscal and monetary policy be adopted for East Pakistan.
- The power of taxation and revenue collection shall be vested in the federating units and the federal centre will have no such power. The federation will be entitled to a share in the state taxes to meet its expenditures.
- There should be two separate accounts for the foreign exchange earnings of the two wings; the foreign exchange requirements of the federal government should be met by the two wings equally or in a ratio to be fixed; indigenous products should move free of duty between the two wings, and the constitution should empower the units to establish trade links with foreign countries.
- East Pakistan should have a separate militia or paramilitary force.
While Mujib presents his demands as advocacy of provincial autonomy, it is widely taken in West Pakistan as a separatist move.
- Main Nay Dhaka Doobtay Daikha by Siddique Salik